Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Nicotiana benthamiana
Species TF ID Description
Niben101Scf00061g00002.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00197g01018.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00199g02008.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00276g02009.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00320g01005.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00337g04004.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00366g03012.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00397g11005.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00408g07005.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf00490g01044.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01143g03005.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01143g04003.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01226g02017.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01433g03011.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01477g01009.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01602g00005.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01682g01007.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf01827g00003.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf02073g09008.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf02357g01004.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf02361g02001.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf02452g06018.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf02736g07004.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf02992g01001.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf03273g01001.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf03350g03001.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf03756g01007.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf03908g02005.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf04410g05002.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf04706g01012.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf04950g01005.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf06076g00011.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf06493g01013.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf06560g01004.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf06666g01011.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf06825g04024.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf07231g02017.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf07812g00015.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf10405g00002.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf12205g00011.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf13572g00012.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf16022g03006.1MIKC_MADS family protein
Niben101Scf32536g00015.1MIKC_MADS family protein
MIKC_MADS (MIKC-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513